US Soldiers Training For Chemical Attack Response
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1st and 2nd Brigade Combat Teams of the 82nd Airborne Division training for Chemical Biological attack response.
Chemical War is war using the chemical properties toxic of chemicals to kill, injure or incapacitate the enemy.
Chemical warfare is different from using conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons have no force explosive . The offensive use of organisms living or other toxic products (such as anthrax or botulinum toxin ) are not considered chemical warfare; but is called biological warfare .
The chemical weapons are classified as weapons of mass destruction by the United Nations , and its production and storage were illegal acts by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993 .
Although chemical warfare had been used in many parts of the world for hundreds of years, the "modern" chemical warfare began during the First World War . Initially the dispersion methods were mostly inefficient and were used only well known commercial versions, such as the compounds of gases chlorine and phosgene .
Germany , the first to occupy chemicals in the battlefield, just opened cans with chlorine into the wind, causing it to take care of dissemination. Shortly thereafter, the artillery French , created modified to contain fosgenio ammunition - a very effective method, which became the main method of dispersal.
These methods were used to cause skin, lung and disabling damage to their opponents in wars and strife, but only until the twentieth century this technique was implemented starting fires, smoke poisoned and resources. during WWI (World War I), Germans began using toxic gases causing blindness, skin burns and severe lung damage; technological advances in other agents such as mustard gas and sarin, causing nerve damage, such as paralysis and death, the tear gas were implemented for limited wars and riots in cities developed, this laxative gas produces digestive problems such as vomiting and diarrhea.
Chemical weapons have been used for millennia in the form of arrows poisoned, but no evidence of more advanced weapons in ancient and classical.
A good example of chemical warfare is primitive societies warriors stationed in South Africa in the late Stone Age (10,000 BC) known as San. They used poisoned arrows, soaking the wood and tips with poisons derived from the environment, mainly by scorpions or snakes , but it is believed that they were used also some poisonous plants. The arrow was launched on the victim, usually a ' antelope , and then the hunter followed her until this not collapsed.
The poisoning of food and water reserves date since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia ( V - III millennium BC ). These poisonings could be supported both by chemicals of non-biological origin (poisons as such), and - more rarely - of biological origin ( toxins ).
There are Chinese writings dating back to the fourth century BC that describe the use of bellows to pump smoke from fires lit with toxic plants (some varieties of mustard , and others), in the tunnels dug by the besiegers. Chinese writings even older, approximately 1000 BC , contain hundreds of recipes for the production of poison gas or irritant to be used in war and on other occasions. Through these findings we became aware of the "mists slayers of men" that contained arsenic , and the use of lime finely ground, dispersed in the air to quell a popular uprising in the year 178 .
The oldest evidence of the use of poison gas in warfare dates back to the fifth century BC , during the Peloponnesian War , between Athenians and Spartans . The forces of Sparta allestirono during a siege a mixture of burned wood , resin and sulfur hoping the poisonous smoke incapacitasse the Athenians, so that they are helpless in the attack that would follow. Sparta, however, was not the only repository of this technology: it is said that Solon used roots of hellebore to poison the waters of the city of Cirrha during a siege in 590 BC
The Persians resorted to the use of poisons to oppose the advance of Alexander the Great ( 334 - 331 BC ), the Romans against the Sasanian between 247 and 363 AD, the Byzantines used them against the Arabs between 636 and 711 .
It is also known the use of chemical weapons in medieval China.
The Polish chronicler Jan Długosz tells the use of poison gas by the armies Mongols in the battle of Legnica in 1241 .
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